Computer networks are protected from unauthorized access, misuse, or modification. It includes a variety of technologies, policies, and practices designed to guarantee the confidentiality, integrity, availability, and integrity of network resources.
Network Security Types
To protect a computer system from unauthorized access, data breaches, and other security risks, a variety of network security measures are available. Here are the most common types:
- Control Access: Access controls restrict network resource access to only authorized users. Password policies, user authentication methods, and other technologies can help achieve this.
- Firewalls: Devices that control and monitor incoming and egressing traffic according to predefined security policies. They are designed to protect a network from network-based threats and prevent unauthorized access.
- Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems: IDPS is a network security device that monitors network traffic to detect signs of possible attacks or security breaches. They can detect various attacks including malware, denial of service attacks, and unauthorized entry attempts.
- Virtual Private Networks: Virtual Private Networks allow remote users access to a private network securely over the Internet. They are often used to provide remote network access or to connect geographically separated networks.
- Software to detect and remove malware and viruses: The software can be used to detect and remove malicious software, such as viruses and malware. These programs can also stop these threats from ever entering the internet.
- encryption: encryption converts plaintext into ciphertext using an algorithm and key. It’s used to secure sensitive data against unauthorized access and ensure the confidentiality of network communication.
- Backup and Recovery Solutions: Data recovery and backup solutions are vital to network security. They prevent data loss caused by hardware failures or natural disasters.
- Network Segregation: Network segregation is the process of dividing a large network into smaller networks to reduce security breaches, and improve performance.
Network Security Tools
There are many network security tools available on the market that can protect a network against various security threats. Here are some of today’s most popular network security tools:
- Nmap: Nmap, is a popular tool for network mapping and port scans that identifies hosts and services in a network as well as detecting vulnerabilities and security threats.
- Wireshark: a network protocol analyzer, that captures and analyses real-time traffic on networks. It’s often used to diagnose network problems, detect security threats and investigate network attacks.
- Snort: Snort is a free, open-source intrusion prevention and detection system that monitors network traffic to detect signs of possible attacks or security breaches.
- Metasploit is a penetration testing tool that simulates real-world attacks to test the security of a network. It contains a variety of payloads and exploits that can help identify and exploit network vulnerabilities.
- Nessus: Nessus is a vulnerability scanner that can be used to identify and assess vulnerabilities within a network. It has a database of known vulnerabilities that can be used to produce detailed reports about the security status of any network.
- OpenVAS: It is an open-source vulnerability scan used to identify and evaluate potential vulnerabilities within a network. It has a web interface with a variety of scanning options.
- Aircrack: It is a wireless security tool that monitors, analyzes, and cracks WEP encryption keys and WPA-PSK encryption keys.
- Burp Suite: Burp Suite, is a tool for web application security testing that is used to identify and exploit vulnerabilities in web applications. It has many features and tools for both manual and automated testing.
- Kali Linux: It is a Linux-based system designed specifically for penetration testing and security assessments of networks. It also includes extensive documentation, support, and a variety of security features and tools.
Network Security Threats
Attacks on network security are intentional actions that aim to compromise the security or resources of a computer system. Here are some types of common network security attacks.
- malware: malware is malicious software that is designed to disrupt or damage a network, as well as gain unauthorized access. Viruses, Trojan horses, worms, and ransomware are all examples of malware.
- DoS Attacks: DoS attacks are designed to disrupt a website or network’s normal operation by flooding them with traffic. The network can be slowed down or crashed, rendering it unusable for legitimate users.
- Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) Attacks: occur when an attacker snoops on or modifies communication between two parties in order to steal important information.
- Attacks on Passwords: password attacks are designed to crack or obtain user passwords in order to gain unauthorized access to a system or its resources. The most common types of password attacks are brute force attacks, dictionary attacks, and phishing.
- Social Engineering: Social Engineering attacks use human psychology to trick people into divulging sensitive data or taking actions that compromise security. Social engineering attacks are often phishing, baiting, or pretexting.
- SQL-Injection: Attacks An SQL-Injection exploits vulnerabilities within web applications in order to gain unauthorized access to databases or execute code on servers.
- Cross-site scripting (XSS): An XSS attack occurs when an attacker injects malicious codes into a webpage that is viewed by other users. The attacker can steal sensitive data or run arbitrary code on the computer of a victim.
- Advanced persistent threats (APTs): APTs is a sophisticated and long-term attacks designed to gain unauthorized access to a computer network or its resources for an extended period of time. These attacks often use multiple techniques and stages, such as social engineering, malware, and MitM.
Network security includes a variety of measures, including firewalls, intrusion prevention systems, virtual networks (VPNs), access control and authentication mechanisms, encryption, and solutions for data backup and recovery. These measures are used to detect and prevent security breaches and to prevent attacks on networks.